Eleven countries, including a number in the Caribbean, and Nigeria, have already launched central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) as they are known, while pilot testing in China now reaches 260 million people and covers 200 scenarios from e-commerce to government stimulus payments. Two other big emerging economies, India and Brazil, also plan to launch digital currencies next year. The European Central Bank is on track to begin its digital euro pilot ahead of a possible launch in 2028, while over 20 other countries will also take significant steps towards pilots this year.
In the United States, though, progress on a digital dollar is only "moving forward" for a wholesale (bank-to-bank) version, the Atlantic Council's research said, whereas work on a retail version for use by the wider population has "stalled". U.S. President Joe Biden ordered government officials to assess the risks and benefits of creating a digital dollar in March 2022